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Homepage / How do I reference a whole book… in the NLM style?

How do I reference a whole book… in the NLM style?


References for whole books tend to be straightforward to produce in the NLM style. Take the source information from the title page and copyright page rather than the book cover.

What do I need to include in the reference?

  • All authors of the book (Surname and a maximum of two initials)
  • Title
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Date of publication

What does the reference look like?

Here is an example of a whole book referenced in the NLM style:

Stroud KA, Booth DJ. Engineering mathematics. 8th ed. London: Red Globe Press; 2020.

What about an edited book?

After the last-named editor add a comma and the word editor or editors. For example:

Davenas A, editor. Solid rocket propulsion technology. Oxford: Pergamon Press; 1993.

What about an eBook?

Add in the word Internet in square brackets after the title and provide the date you accessed the book after the publication date followed by a full stop. Next add the statement ‘Available from’ and the URL or DOI. For example:

Laska PR. Bombs, IEDs, and explosives: identification, investigation, and disposal techniques [Internet]. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2015 Aug 12 [cited 2023 Oct 20]. Available from:


Please note: Cranfield supports two different referencing styles – APA7 (Author-Date) and NLM (Numbered). Please make sure you use the style preferred by your supervisor or lecturer. The advice above relates only to the NLM style. If you have any questions about referencing, please contact the Library


Photo by Mimi Thian onUnsplash.

Written By: Anna Barefoot

Anna is a Teaching and Learning Librarian

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