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Homepage / How do I reference journal articles… in the NLM style?

How do I reference journal articles… in the NLM style?


References for journal articles are one of the most used reference types for postgraduate research as these sources are frequently used in assignments. In the NLM Numbered Referencing Guide they are listed under periodicals. Periodicals are sources with regular publication schedules such as journals, magazines, and newspapers.

What do I need to include in the reference?

  • All authors of the article (Surname and a maximum of two initials)
  • Title of the article
  • Journal title
  • Date of publication
  • Volume and issue number (if available)
  • Page numbers

If any information is missing, such as pages, volume and issue numbers, omit them from the reference.

What does the reference look like?

Here is an example of printed journal article referenced in the NLM style:

Cosenza C, Niola V, Pagano S, Savino S. Theoretical study on a modified rocker-bogie suspension for robotic rovers. Robotica. 2023 Oct; 41(10):2915-2940.

What if the article is online?

If your source is an eJournal you will need to indicate this by adding [Internet], the date you accessed it, and the URL or DOI. Note the date in the reference below is different to the one above even though it is the same article. If available, provide the date for the individual journal article (when it was published online) rather than the date for the whole journal issue.

Cosenza C, Niola V, Pagano S, Savino S. Theoretical study on a modified rocker-bogie suspension for robotic rovers [Internet]. Robotica. 2023 May 29 [cited 2023 Nov 23]; 41(10):2915-2940. Available from:

Can journal titles be abbreviated?

For the NLM style, yes, they can. However, if using abbreviations make sure you use standard abbreviations – a list is available through the ISSN International Centre’s LTWA (List of Title Word Abbreviations)

Is there anything I need to know about for in-text citations?

If you want to include author names in your writing and the journal article has three or more authors, list the first author followed by ‘et al’. For example:

Cosenza et al (1) outline how rocker-bogie suspension can distribute weight equally…

Any questions?

If you have any questions about referencing, please contact your librarian or the Library

Please note: Cranfield supports two different referencing styles – APA7 (Author-Date) and NLM (Numbered). Please make sure you use the style preferred by your supervisor or lecturer. The advice above relates only to the NLM style.


Photo by Mimi Thian on Unsplash

Written By: Anna Barefoot

Anna is a Teaching and Learning Librarian

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