Discover our blogs

Aerospace | Cranfield University


Agrifood | Cranfield University


Alumni | Cranfield University


Careers | Cranfield University


Careers | Cranfield University

Defence and Security

Design | Cranfield University


Energy and Power | Cranfield University

Energy and Sustainability

Environment | Cranfield University


Forensics | Cranfield University


Libraries | Cranfield University


Libraries | Cranfield University

Manufacturing and Materials

Libraries | Cranfield University

School of Management

Libraries | Cranfield University

Transport Systems

Water | Cranfield University


Homepage / How do I reference interviews, surveys and questionnaires… in the APA7 style?

How do I reference interviews, surveys and questionnaires… in the APA7 style?


During your studies you might be required to gather information using surveys, questionnaires, or interviews. When it comes to using the results in your work, how do you reference them? The short answer, in APA7, is that there is no bibliographic reference for this form of research!

That does not mean that you do not need to credit your source at all. To present findings from a survey or interview, you should anonymise your participants – for example, Participant A stated that: […]. Or, you might quote figures – 70% of all respondents described their experience as […]. Your original survey, and responses if anonymised, can be added to your assignment as an appendix.

There is no requirement in APA7 for a bibliographic (full) reference.

Please be aware that the guidance for surveys, questionnaires and interviews is designed to cover research with multiple participants. If you have interviewed or corresponded by email with one or two people, and wish to use their personal views in your work, you can cite this using the guidance for personal communication.

If you need any further guidance, please contact us or visit us in SOM Library.

Please note: Cranfield supports two different referencing styles – APA7 (Author-date) and Numbered (NLM). Please make sure you use the style preferred by your supervisor or lecturer. The advice above relates only to the APA7 style. If you have any questions about referencing, please contact the Library.

Featured Image by Andreas Breitling from Pixabay.

Angela Sparks

Written By: Angela Sparks

Categories & Tags:

Leave a comment on this post:

Sign up for more information about studying master’s and research degrees at Cranfield

Sign up now
Go to Top