We all know how to cite and reference from books, journals, the internet and even blog posts, but what about financials? Just like information from other sources, data retrieved from a specialist finance resource should be acknowledged in the same way.
The format for referencing financials in APA7 style – whether a set of financial data, accounting or financial dataset – is essentially the same.
Here’s what you need to include in your reference:
- Author or authorising organisation.
- (Date of publication include day and month if available).
- Title or section of report OR Title of data extract in italics. Follow this with a description of the work in square brackets, e.g. [Financial Data].
- Platform or website where the materials are located.
- URL – include a URL if the materials are available online (only include if the material has come from a platform that will be available to the reader of your work) – or Retrieved Month, Date, from database/source name.
And how your references should look:
Bloomberg L.P. (2017). Tesco PLC daily share price (2011-2016) [Financial Data]. Retrieved March 2, 2017, from Bloomberg terminal.
S&P Capital IQ (2022). Meta Platforms, Inc. annual income statement 2017 to 2022 [Financial Data]. Retrieved August 11, 2022, from S&P Capital IQ platform.
What about your in-text citations?
Where you make reference to these in your text, follow the normal ‘name and date’ conventions and simply follow any mention with (Bloomberg, 2017) or (S&P Capital IQ, 2022) or a variation thereon.
As always, if you have any questions about referencing, please contact MIRC or the Kings Norton Library.
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